Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live longer than men in the present and how has this advantage increased over time? We have only a small amount of evidence and the evidence is not strong enough to make a definitive conclusion. While we are aware that there are biological, behavioral as well as environmental factors that all play a role in women who live longer than men, we do not know the extent to which each factor plays a role.
We know that women live longer than males, Isoux.org/forum/profile.php?id=77925 regardless of weight. But it is not because of certain non-biological aspects have changed. These are the factors that are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.
Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are above the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl from every country could expect to live longer than her brothers.
This chart is interesting in that it shows that, while the advantage for women exists in all countries, country-specific differences are huge. In Russia women are 10 years older than men. In Bhutan the gap is less than half an hour.
In wealthy countries, the women’s advantage in longevity was previously smaller.
We will now examine how the advantage of women in life expectancy has changed over time. The next chart plots male and female life expectancies when they were born in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two aspects stand out.
First, there’s an upward trend. as well as women in the US have a much longer life span longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.
And second, there is a widening gap: The female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be extremely small, but it grew substantially in the past century.
You can confirm that these are applicable to other countries that have data by clicking on the “Change country” option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.